Define Multiprogramming, Multitasking, Multiprocessing in os

Operating System Properties

  • Batch processing
  • Multitasking
  • Multiprogramming
  • Interactivity
  • Real Time System
  • Distributed Environment
  • Spooling

Define Batch Processing

Batch processing is a technique in which an operating system collects the program and data together in a batch before processing start.An operating system does the following activities related to batch processing:
  • The OS defines a job which has predefined sequence of commands, programs and data as a single unit.
  • The OS keeps a number of jobs in a memory and execute them without any manual information.
  • Jobs are processed in the order of submission , i.e., first come first served fashion.
  • When a job complete its execution , its memory is released and the output for the job gets copied into an output spool for later printing or processing.
Advantage and Disadvantage of Batch Processing

  • Advantage: Batch processing takes much of the work of the operator to the computer.
  • Increased performance as a new job get started as soon as the previous job is finished, without any manual intervention.
  • Disadvantage: Difficult to debug program.
  • A job could enter an infinite loop.
  • r an infinite loop.
  • Due to lack of protection scheme, one batch job can affect pending jobs.

Define Multitasking Operating System

Multitasking, in an operating system, is allowing a user to perform more than one computer task (such as the operation of an application program) at a time. The operating system is able to keep track of where you are in these tasks and go from one to the other without losing information

Advantages and Disadvantages of Multitasking operating System 

  • Advantage: Time sharing
  • Handle multiple users
  • Protected memory
  • Efficient virtual memory
  • Programs can run in the background:
  • Increase reliability
  • The user can use multiple programs
  • Best use of computer resources
  • Disadvantage : Limitation of memory
  • Limitation of the processor
  • CPU heat up

Define Multiprogramming in Operating System

Multiprogramming is also the ability of an operating system to execute more than one program on a single processor machine. More than one task/program/job/process can reside into the main memory at one point of time. A computer running excel and firefox browser simultaneously is an example of multiprogramming.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Multiprogramming operating System 

  • Advantage: CPU is used most of time and never become idle
  • The system looks fast as all the tasks runs in parallel
  • Short time jobs are completed faster than long time jobs
  • Multiprogramming systems support multiply users
  • Resources are used nicely
  • Total read time taken to execute program/job decreases
  • Response time is shorter
  • In some applications multiple tasks are running and multiprogramming systems better handle these type of applications
  • Disadvantage : It is difficult to program a system because of complicated schedule handling
  • Tracking all tasks/processes is sometimes difficult to handle
  • Due to high load of tasks, long time jobs have to wait long

Define interactivity in OS

An interactive operating system is one that allows the user to directly interact with the operating system whilst one or more programs are running.There will be an user interface in place to allow this to happen. It could be a command line style of interface or it could be a graphical interface.Most operating systems are of this type.

Define Real Time Operating System (RTOS)

A Real Time Operating System, commonly known as an RTOS, is a software component that rapidly switches between tasks, giving the impression that multiple programs are being executed at the same time on a single processing core.
In actual fact the processing core can only execute one program at any one time, and what the RTOS is actually doing is rapidly switching between individual programming threads (or Tasks) to give the impression that multiple programs are executing simultaneously.

Define Distributive Environment in Operating System

A distributed environment refers to multiple independent CPUs or processors in a computer system. An operating system does the following activities related to distributed environment .
  • The OS distributes computation logics among several physical processors.
  • The processors do not share memory or a clock. Instead, each processor has its own local memory.
  • The OS manages the communications between the processors. They communicate with each other through various communication lines.

Define Spooling in Operating System

Spooling is an acronym for simultaneous peripheral operations on line. Spooling refers to putting data of various I/O jobs in a buffer. This buffer is a special area in memory or hard disk which is accessible to I/O devices.

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